scientific conference of lau
Title Life Satisfaction and Happiness of Russians at a Mature Age
Author Margarita E. Permyakova, Olga S. Vindeker, Tat’yana L. Smorkalova
About the author

DOI 10.35853/UfH-RMP-2019-SP04
Section Social Psychology
Year Index UDK 316.61-053.8 Pages 254–267
Abstract The article describes the results of the empirical study into sociodemographic correlates and subjective correlates of happiness. The relevance of the study is determined by the fact that the modern world places exorbitant, often conflicting requirements (information-driven, need and motive-based, value-oriented, etc.) on the individual. And basic needs associated with self-actualization and a willingness to be happy are marginalized and take a back seat. In such circumstances, we consider the study into the feelings of happiness and subjective wellbeing linked to both satisfaction with different life aspects and objective socio-demographic factors to be relevant. Our study aimed to define the linkage between the happiness of mature Russians and their satisfaction with different aspects of life. We formed the hypothesis of a connection between happiness and satisfaction with the job, material situation, health, proper rest, inter-spousal relations, and relationships with their children and friends. The sample consisted of 1520 people (222 males and 1298 females) aged 40,45 ± 6,72 with children (or 1 child) of school age. We used a questionnaire embracing questions of a socio-demographic (gender, age, marital status, number of children, income, etc.) and psychological nature (assessment of happiness and satisfaction with such life aspects as a job, material situation, relations with spouses, children, friends, proper rest, health, etc). The results revealed that the feelings of happiness are connected with both objective socio-demographic indicators and the level of satisfaction with different life aspects. Happiness positively correlates with the number of children in a family and income, and also with overall life satisfaction. With age, a subjective sense of happiness “fades” a bit, and the respondents estimate happiness slightly lower (it is more characteristic of the female part of the sample). Men and women do not differ in the level of being happy but there exist some peculiarities in the linkage of happiness with such factors as marital status (being married) and the number of children – unlike men, for women these correlations are statistically significant. Also, men, compared to women, are more satisfied with the material situation and inter-spousal relations and less satisfied with their relations with friends. In general, the obtained results complement the data published in academic literature. Thus, it was found that not all factors considered as predictors of happiness in the public mind correlate with the feelings of happiness. For instance, it was revealed that such an essential factor of material wellbeing as homeownership has nothing to do with a sense of happiness: the respondents with and without own homes are equally happy.
Keywords
  • happiness
  • subjective wellbeing
  • life satisfaction
  • socio-demographic indicators
For citation Permyakova ME, Vindeker OS, Smorkalova TL. Life satisfaction and happiness of Russians at a mature age. In: Zaks LA, Semitko AP, Mitsek SA, et al. (еds.) Russian Man and Power in the Context of Dramatic Changes in Today’s World: Collection of academic papers from the 21st Russian scientific-practical conference (with international participation) (Yekaterinburg, April 12–13, 2019). Yekaterinburg: Liberal Arts University – University for Humanities; 2019. p. 254–267. Available from: doi:10.35853/UfH-RMP-2019-SP04.
License Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Article language russian
References
  • 1. Argyle М. Psikhologiya schast’ya [Psychology of happiness]. Saint Petersburg: Piter; 2003. 272 p. (In Russ.).
  • 2. Baturin NA, Bashkatov SA, Gafarova NV. Teoreticheskaya model’ lichnostnogo blagopoluchiya [A theoretical model of personality wellbeing]. Vestnik YuUr GU. Seriya : Psikhologiya = The Southern Ural State University Bulletin. Series: Psychology. 2013;6(4): 4–14. (In Russ.).
  • 3. Bocharova EE. Teoretiko-kontseptual’nye osnovaniya issledovaniya problemy sub”ektivnogo blagopoluchiya [Theoretical and conceptual foundations of studying the problem of subjective wellbeing]. Vestnik MGOU. Seriya : Psikhologicheskie nauki = The Bulletin of Moscow Region State University. Series: Psychology. 2012;2: 38–44. (In Russ.).
  • 4. Demenev AG. Evdemonisticheskie i gedonisticheskie teorii v sovremennykh issledovaniyakh schast’ya [Eudemonistic and hedonistic theories in contemporary research on happiness]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya : Filosofiya = The Bulletin of Voronezh State University. Series: Philosophy. 2016;4: 15–23. (In Russ.).
  • 5. Djidaryan IA. Psikhologiya schast'ya i optimizma [Psychology of happiness and optimism]. Moscow: The Publishing house “Institute of Psychology of the Russian Academy of Sciences”; 2013. 268 p. (In Russ.).
  • 6. Dontsov AI, Perelygina EB, Zotova OY, Tarasova LV, Veraksa AN, Rikel AM. Doverie i sub”ektivnoe blagopoluchie kak osnova psikhologicheskoi bezopasnosti sovremennogo obshchestva [Trust and subjective wellbeing as a basis for psychological security of modern society]. Yekaterinburg: University for Humanities; 2017. 578 p. (In Russ.).
  • 7. Zotova OY. Psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie lichnosti [Psychological security of personality]. Yekaterinburg: University for Humanities; 2018. 312 p. (In Russ.).
  • 8. Idobaeva OA. K postroeniyu modeli issledovaniya psikhologicheskogo blagopoluchiya lichnosti: psikhologo-razvitiinyi i psikhologo-pedagogicheskii aspekty [To constructing a model for studying personality psychological wellbeing: psychological-and-developmental and psychological-and pedagogical aspects]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta = The Bulletin of Tomsk State University. 2011;351: 128–134. (In Russ.).
  • 9. Karapetyan LV. Prediktory emotsional’no-lichnostnogo blagopoluchiya. Chast’ 1 : internal’nye pozitivnye prediktory [Predictors of emotional and personal wellbeing, Part 1: internal positive predictors]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya I : Problemy obrazovaniya, nauki i kul’tury = Proceedings of Ural Federal University. Series 1: Problems of education, science and culture. 2018;24(2): 66–73. (In Russ.).
  • 10. Kulikov LV. Psikhogigiena lichnosti. Voprosy psikhologicheskoi ustoichivosti i psikhoprofilaktiki [Psychohygiene of personality. Issues of resilience and psychoprophylaxis]. Saint Petersburg: Piter; 2004. 464 p. (In Russ.).
  • 11. Laktionova EB, Matyushkina MG. Teoreticheskii analiz podkhodov k issledovaniyu problemy pozitivnogo funktsionirovaniya lichnosti: schast’e, psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie, sub”ektivnoe blagopoluchie [A theoretical analysis of approaches to studying positive functioning of personality: happiness, psychological wellbeing, subjective wellbeing]. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya : Psikhologiya = Proceedings of Irkutsk State University. Series: Psychology. 2018;26: 77–88. (In Russ.).
  • 12. Leontiev DA, Rasskazova EI. Psikhologiya. Chto nado dlya schast’ya: kul’turnye, regional’nye i individual’nye razlichiya i invarianty istochnikov schast’ya [Psychology. What is needed for happiness: cultural, regional and individual differences and invariants of sources of happiness]. Vestnik KRAUNTs. Gumanitarnye nauki = The Bulletin of Kamchatsk Regional Association “Training and Scientific Center”. Human sciences. 2006. Available from: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/chto-nado-dlya-schastya-kulturnye-regionalnye-i-individualnye-razlichiyai-invarianty-istochnikov-schastya [Accessed 20.04.2019]. (In Russ.).
  • 13. Monusova GA. Sub”ektivnoe blagopoluchie i vozrast: Rossiya v kontekste mezhdunarodnykh sravnenii [Subjective wellbeing and age: Russia in the context of international comparisons]. In: XII Mezhdunarodnaya nauchnaya konferentsiya po problemam razvitiya ekonomiki i obshchestva [12th International conference on problems of the development of economy and society]. Moscow: The publishing house of HSE; 2012. Vol. 3. p. 94–101. (In Russ.).
  • 14. Permyakova ME, Ershova IA. Sub”ektivnoe oshchushchenie schast’ya u veruyushchikh i ateistov [Subjective sense of happiness among atheists and believers]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya I : Problemy obrazovaniya, nauki i kul’tury = Proceedings of Ural Federal University. Series 1: Problems of education, science and culture. 2015;3(141): 69–78. (In Russ.).
  • 15. Rikel AM, Tuniyants AA, Batyrova N. Ponyatie sub”ektivnogo blagopoluchiya v gedonisticheskom i evdemonisticheskom podkhodakh [The concept of subjective wellbeing in hedonistic and eudemonistic approaches]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 14 : Psikhologiya = The Bulletin of Moscow State University. Series 14: Psychology. 2017;2: 64–79. (In Russ.).
  • 16. Seligman М. Novaya pozitivnaya psikhologiya: nauchnyi vzglyad na schast’e i smysl zhizni [New positive psychology: a scholarly look at happiness and meaning of life]. Moscow: Sofiya; 2006. 368 p. (In Russ.).
  • 17. Semenova MN. Psikhologicheskoe blagopoluchie i religioznaya orientatsiya lichnosti v period vzroslosti [Psychological wellbeing and religious orientation of personality during adulthood]. Diskussiya = Discussion. 2014;3: 104–110. (In Russ.).
  • 18. Sozontov АЕ. Gedonisticheskii i evdemonicheskii podkhody k probleme psikhologicheskogo blagopoluchiya [Hedonistic and eudemonistic approaches to the problem of psychological wellbeing]. Voprosy psikhologii = Issues of Psychology. 2006;4: 105–114. (In Russ.).
  • 19. Shamionov RМ. Kriterii sub”ektivnogo blagopoluchiya lichnosti: sotsiokul’turnaya determinatsiya [The criteria of personality subjective wellbeing: sociocultural determination]. Izvestiya Saratovskogo universiteta. Novaya seriya. Seriya : Akmeologiya obrazovaniya. Psikhologiya razvitiya = Proceedings of Saratov University. New series. Series: Acmeology of education. Psychology of development. 2015;4(3): 213–218. (In Russ.).
  • 20. Diener E. Happiness: The Science of Subjective well-being. 2015. Available from: http://www.noba.to/modules/happiness-the-science-of-subjectivewell-being [Accessed 20.04.2019].
  • 21. Diener E, Chan M. Happy People Live Longer: Subjective Well-Being Contributes to Health and Longevity. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being. 2011;3(1): 1–43. Available from: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/ediner/Documents/Diner-Chan [Accessed 11.11.2015].
  • 22. Diener E, Seligman M. Very Happy People. Psychological Science. 2002;13: 81–84. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11468365_Very_Happy_People [Accessed 21.11.2015].
  • 23. Eddington N, Shuman R. Subjective well-being (happiness). San Diego, CA: Continuing psychology education; 2006. Available from: http://www.texcpe.com/html/pdf/can/CARNSWB.pdf [Accessed 11.11.2015].
  • 24. Keyes CL, Waterman MB. Dimensions of Well-Being and Mental Health in Adulthood. In: Well-being. Positive Development Across the life Course. London: Erlbaum Associates; 2003. p. 477–495.
  • 25. Moyano Diaz E, Dinamarca D, Mendoza-Llanos R. Happiness Scale for Adults (EFPA). Terapia Psicologica. 2018;36(1): 37–49.
  • 26. Myers DG, Diener E. “Who is happy?” Psychological Science. 1995;6: 10–19.
  • 27. Oishi S, Diener E, Lucas R. The Optimum Level of Well-Being: Can People Be Too Happy? Perspectives on Psychological Science. 2007;2(4): 346–360.
  • 28. Robinson MD, Ryff CD. The Role of Self-Deception in Perceptions of Past, Present and Future Happiness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1999;25(5): 596–608.
  • 29. Ryff CD. Happiness is everything of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 1989;59: 1069–1081.
  • 30. Zotova OY, Karapetyan LV. Occupation as a factor of personality subjective well-being. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 2015;8(2): 126–136.
Funding
Submitted 02.07.2019
Accepted 08.08.2019